Demo One How to measure
Latitude & Longitude
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The Earth is not a sphere.  It is an oblate spheroid.
The Earth is
134.397 kilometers (83.51 miles) farther
around at the Equator than at the Poles.
ALL VALUES ARE ROUNDED TO THE NEAREST .01
AT THE EQUATOR
One degree of latitude =  110.57 km or  68.71 mi
One minute of latitude =    1.84 km or   1.15 mi
One second of latitude =   30.72 m  or 100.77 ft
One degree of longitude = 111.32 km or  69.17 mi
One minute of longitude =   1.86 km or   1.15 mi
One second of longitude =  30.92 m  or 101.45 ft
AT LATITUDE 40 DEGREES (NORTH OR SOUTH)
One degree of latitude =  111.03 km or  68.99 mi
One minute of latitude =    1.85 km or 1.15 mi.
One degree of longitude =  85.39 km or  53.06 mi
One minute of longitude =   1.42 km or    .88 mi
One second of longitude =  23.72 m  or  77.82 ft
AT LATITUDE 80 DEGREES (NORTH OR SOUTH)
One degree of latitude =  111.66 km or  69.38 mi
One minute of latitude =    1.86 km or   1.16 mi
One second of latitude =   31.02 m  or 101.76 ft
One degree of longitude =  19.39 km or  12.05 mi
One minute of longitude =    .32 km or    .20 mi
One second of longitude =   5.39 m  or  17.67 ft
AT THE POLES
One degree of latitude =  111.69 km or  69.40 mi
One minute of latitude =    1.86 km or  1.16 mi
One second of latitude =   31.03 m  or  101.79 ft
Diagram is exaggerated
(
red line is a circle.)
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Anywhere south of the equator is a negative latitude.  
Anywhere west of the prime meridian is a negative longitude.
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